When an institution is placed under resolution, the European Single Resolution Fund (SRF) or National Resolution Fund (NRF; see Resolution funds financed by contributions from institutions) can be used to finance the resolution measures, subject to the conditions set out in Article 76 of the SRM regulation and in Article 101 of the BRRD.
Use of the Single Resolution Fund
The SRF can be used to finance the application of resolution tools (sale of business, bridge institutions, separation of assets and bail-in).
It can only be used for the following purposes: to guarantee the assets or liabilities of the institution under resolution, its subsidiaries, a bridge institution or an asset management vehicle, or to provide them with loans or contributions; to purchase the assets of the institution under resolution; to pay compensation to shareholders or creditors who might have incurred greater losses than they would have under normal insolvency proceedings.
The SRF can only intervene to cover losses once losses totalling at least 8% of the institution's liabilities have been absorbed by the shareholders and creditors. Moreover, contributions from the fund are limited to 5% of the institution's liabilities (including own funds). This is consistent with Article 15 of the SRM regulation setting out the general principles governing resolution, which states that shareholders of the institution under resolution bear first losses, followed by the creditors, in accordance with the order of priority of their claims.
Use of the National Resolution Fund
The National Resolution Fund can be used for the same purposes as the SRF, but is reserved for institutions not falling within the scope of the SRF as of 1 January 2016. It can also grant loans to other financing arrangements, but strictly on a voluntary basis.